Alarm Bells

We in the geography community here in Illinois recently received an alarming email from the Chair of a Social Studies Department in a medium-sized town in western Illinois. She explained that her administration is concerned that the teaching of geography, specifically where countries are located, is insignificant information.

As President of the Geographic Society of Chicago, I would like to speak to that notion.

Everyone has read the articles about Americans’ geographic illiteracy. “Six in 10 Americans cannot find Iraq on a map of the Middle East,” reported the Chicago Sun-Times in 2006. Another paper reported that “1 in 8 don’t know Alaska is a state.” The reports keep coming.  The National Assessment of Educational Progress, known as “The Nation’s Report Card,” recently concluded that only 23% of fourth-graders, 30% of 8th graders, and a meager 21% of twelfth-graders were considered proficient in their understanding of geography.

Certainly, ignorance of our world map is widespread and alarming in itself. But geographic illiteracy is much more profound than being able to locate Iraq or Alaska on a map.

Undoubtedly, the “wheres” are important, but they are merely the alphabet of geography. Reciting the alphabet is not the same as learning how to read. The same is true of geographic literacy. The “wheres” are the building blocks, but the “whys”—why the world looks and functions as it does—provide the interconnecting principles for understanding our world. Geography is a study of the physical Earth, as well as a study of the world’s people.

Our citizens, the caretakers of our planet and leaders of our country, are graduating from school with little or no training in geography. Without geography, how can we understand Earth’s patterns—its climate regions, its weather systems, its cultures, its population patterns, its agricultural demands? How can we understand the effects of our actions or how these patterns can be disrupted by war, pollution, poverty, globalization, population growth, or climate change?

Geography is an integrating discipline that informs us about the world’s people and how they interact with the land we live on, the air we breathe, and the water we drink. Like a piece of fabric, geography is where all of Earth’s threads are interwoven. Pull one thread out and others unravel. We need this critically important subject to be an essential part of our K-12 curriculum. For the future of our country, we must insist that all our citizens be geographically literate.

Readers of this Geo-Blog, please add your opinions here so that we can help prevent the disintegration of geography in American classrooms.

Celeste Fraser, President
Geographic Society of Chicago

Global Climate Change

I have been following environmental issues since my college days in the late 60s and early 70s. So far, the biggest issue of the 21st Century has been global climate change. As I have traveled the U.S. teaching geography over the past 12 years, I have been asked repeatedly, “Is global warming real?” While some of the details are not yet clear, a great deal of good science has led us ever closer to the answer.

I recently came across an Associated Press article by Charles J. Hanley that gets to the heart of the answer to this question. He reports that the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said that this summer’s weather-related cataclysms fit patterns predicted by climate scientists. Specifically the WMO is referring to the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which made specific predictions in its latest assessment in 2007. In the article, Hanley goes through a litany of climate-related woes the Earth is experiencing this summer that fit the IPCC predictions. These include:

  • Russia – Prolonged drought and record heat leading to disastrous wildfires
  • Pakistan – Heaviest monsoon rains on record resulting in devastating floods
  • China – Worst floods in decades causing landslides that have killed thousands
  • Arctic – Largest iceberg calving since 1962 and second lowest ice coverage ever recorded for July

Below I have included some NASA Earth Observatory images so you can see for yourself what is happening in theses locales. If you click on the link embedded in the title of each image, it will take you to the NASA website where you can see an explanation of the images, follow these events over time, and learn more about them.

Severe Drought in Southern Russia

Smoke Over Western Russia

Unusually Intense Monsoon Rains in Asia

Flooding in Pakistan

Landslide in Zhouqu, China

Ice Island Calves off Petermann Glacier

While all reasonable climate scientists are reluctant to attribute any individual unusual weather event to global climate change, the weather events of this summer support the IPCC’s conclusions – that increases in CO2 in the atmosphere are due to fossil fuel burning, which is contributing to rising temperatures, which in turn have led to this summer’s unusual events.

According to NOAA, this past June was the hottest month on record. Arctic sea ice covered an average of 4.2 million square miles (10.9 million square kilometers) during June, the lowest June extent since record-keeping began in 1979. At the same time, Antarctic sea ice extent in June was above average, resulting in the largest June extent on record. This latter fact points out the reason that we should refer to the phenomenon as “global climate change” rather than “global warming.” The name implies that the planet will not warm uniformly but will actually cool in some places as oceanic and atmospheric systems adjust to the added greenhouse gas load. Climate change models also predict that many places will get drier while some locales will get wetter. The extreme events of this summer do not prove that models of human-induced climate change are correct, but they make it much more likely that climate scientists are on the right track in understanding the impact of our uncontrolled burning of fossil fuels.

Some skeptics of the accepted climate models point out that there are natural cycles that cause CO2 and other greenhouse gases to fluctuate widely in the atmosphere and oceans. This is absolutely true. In fact, human life on this planet was not possible until the current balance of atmospheric gases had evolved over geologic time. However, it also is certainly true that current dramatic rise in CO2 is associated with human use of fossil fuels since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Consequently I believe our continued survival depends on doing what we can to maintain that delicate balance.

Five Lakes in One

The NASA satellite image below shows the five Great Lakes on a rare cloudless day (August 28, 2010). The lake basins were gouged out by a series of continental glaciers comprised of ice sheets more than a mile thick in places. Over the past 2.4 million years, repeated episodes of glacial advance and retreat have scoured the region. The most recent ice sheet vacated the northern edge of the Great Lakes watershed about 9,000 years ago (see Larson and Schaetzl). As the ice age came to an end, the lake basins filled with glacial meltwater. Over the next 5,000 years lake levels, lake shapes, and drainage patterns fluctuated as the elevation of the land rose with the weight of ice removed, new outlets were uncovered by the melting ice, and erosion uncovered new drainage streams. For example, 5,000 years ago the current site of the City of Chicago was under more than 20 feet of water (see Michigan State University). At that time the bulbous southern end of what is now known as Lake Michigan drained southwest to the Illinois/Mississippi river system. This outlet of Glacial Lake Chicago was abandoned about 4,000 years ago as the current level of Lake Michigan was reached.

The lakes that remain today represent the largest group of freshwater lakes on the surface of the planet. Collectively, the Great Lakes represent roughly 18% of Earth’s surface fresh water that is not frozen. The five lakes form a truly interrelated system due to their watery connections. Although new channels have been dug and natural channels have been modified by man, the Great Lakes remain connected to the sea in much the same configuration as the glaciers left them.

Lake Superior is the highest in the system (see TEACH for a profile). It empties through the St. Marys River into Lake Huron which is 20 feet lower. Lake Michigan is at the same elevation and is connected to Huron by the deep Straits of Mackinac. The three upper lakes drain through the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair and the Detroit River into the first of the lower lakes only 8 feet below, Lake Erie. The largest drop (325 feet) is over Niagara Falls in the Niagara River connecting Erie with Lake Ontario. From there the system drains into the Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence River.

As the name implies, Lake Superior is the largest of the five on nearly every measure of size (see NOAA). By volume, Lake Superior contains more water than the other four combined due to its large surface area and quarter-mile depth. Lake Michigan is the second largest by volume but Lake Huron is second by a small margin in surface area. Of the two smallest lakes, Erie has the least volume due to its shallow depth even though it is quite a bit larger in surface area than Ontario.

Ready access to this huge water supply has encouraged the growth of large population centers. The region encompassed by the image includes 25% of the Canadian population and 10% of the U.S. population. Nearly 34 million people live in the basins of the five lakes, led by Lake Erie and Lake Michigan, each having over 12 million people living in their tributary areas.

Humans use this water for drinking, recreation, agriculture, transportation, industrial processes and waste disposal. As one might expect, conflicts among these uses abound. Environmental threats include uncontrolled pollutants from urban and agricultural runoff, effluent from industrial processes, and the introduction of invasive species.

The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the construction of the Welland Canal around Niagara Falls were major contributors to the introduction of invasive species into the Great Lakes. These constructions allowed ocean-going vessels to penetrate the Great Lakes all the way to Lake Superior. Ballast water in these ships contained many exotic species from around the world. Sea lampreys, round gobies, zebra mussels, quagga mussels, and Eurasian ruff are some of the most disruptive species that have invaded via this route.

Due to their voracious appetites and rapid breeding, Asian Carp pose a serious threat to Great Lakes' ecosystems

The possible introduction of Asian carp into the system represents a threat that has received a lot of attention lately. This exotic species has worked its way up the Mississippi and Illinois rivers into the Chicago region. Under natural conditions, these rivers had not connected to the Great Lakes since the days when Glacial Lake Chicago drained in that direction. With the completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1844 and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1990, man-made connections between the Great Lakes and the interior river systems became well established. Though useful for transportation and wastewater removal, these artificial waterways present another threat to the Great Lakes system by providing an additional conduit for the introduction of invasive species.