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Illinois Geographic Alliance’s Summer 2017 Workshops

Geographic Thinking in Action: Using Maps and Other Primary Sources in the Elementary School Classroom

The IL Geographic Alliance invites you to attend one of its two-day workshops to:

  • Learn about programs and resources available from the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources (TPS) Program and the Illinois Geographic Alliance, a member of the National Geographic Network of Alliances for Geographic Education
  • Examine K-5 national and Illinois geography standards for learning (new Illinois standards effective 1/2016)
  • Explore geographical and historical thinking
  • Discuss strategies to help develop student’s critical thinking and inquiry skills
  • Work with experienced educators, geographers, and historians
  • Analyze maps and primary documents using both geographical and historical thinking tools and techniques
  • Receive a variety of resources and materials ready for immediate classroom use
  • Earn Professional Development hours (at no out-of-pocket cost)

For information and registration visit iga.illinoisstate.edu.

 

 

Why is the Ocean Salty?

by Derek Kaden

Why is the Ocean Salty?

The Ocean is salty because of dissolved land materials that are deposited into the Ocean through streams and rivers. Stream and river water does not taste salty because it is moving, compared to the Ocean, which is essentially a giant bath tub. The concept is the same for most lake water. The Great Lakes are not salty because the water contained within them is on the move. According to an article by Science Daily, a drop of water in the Great Lakes will stay there for approximately 200 years before it makes its way out to sea, whereas a droplet of water in the Ocean can take up to 200 million years before it goes anywhere!

Farming for sea salt in Thailand.

Farming for sea salt in Thailand.

Why are Some Lakes Salty?

The most well-known salty inland lakes are the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Dead Sea in Western Asia. These bodies of water are so salty because they receive a lot of dissolved river deposits and offer no further outlet for those deposits to go. In addition, evaporation is greater than rainfall in these areas. The more evaporation in an area, the higher the salinity (saltiness of water) will be. Rainfall causes salinity levels to sink. The Great Salt Lake has an approximate salinity of 280 parts per thousand, which is 8 times saltier than the average salinity of the Ocean. The Dead Sea’s salinity is 330 parts per thousand, or almost 10 times saltier than the Ocean. The saltiest known inland body of water is the Don Juan Pond in Antarctica, a very small and shallow patch of water that has a salinity of 440 parts per thousand, which is 12 and a half times saltier than the Ocean!

The dense salty water of the Dead Sea makes it very easy to float - without a floaty!

The dense salty water of the Dead Sea makes it very easy to float – without a floaty!

What are the Key Differences Between Fresh Water and Salt Water?

Some of the most marked differences between fresh water and salt water are in their freezing points and boiling points. Pure water freezes at a very familiar temperature: 32 degrees Fahrenheit (o Celsius). Average Ocean water that has salinity of 35 parts per thousand freezes at a lower temperature: 28.6 degrees Fahrenheit (-1.9 Celsius). In fact, the more saline a body of water is, the lower the temperature must be for that water to freeze. Since the Don Juan Pond is so salty, it still doesn’t freeze even when temperatures reach -22 degrees Fahrenheit (-30 Celsius)!

The boiling point of average Ocean water is only slightly higher than the boiling point of fresh water. Fresh water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 Celsius), whereas Ocean water boils at 213.1 Fahrenheit (100.6 Celsius). This means that adding salt to your soup or pasta water will actually make the food cook slightly quicker, and it will of course make it taste better! It’s important to add the salt after the water starts boiling, otherwise it will take longer to reach a boil.

What is the AAG and Where Does it Come From?

by Derek Kaden

What is the AAG? It stands for the Association of American Geographers, and it is the premier academic and professional geography organization in the United States. Since 1904, the organization has hosted an annual conference. This year, it’s being held for 5 days – April 21st to the 25th – in Chicago.

A Brief History of the AAG

Back in 1904, the AAG was founded by 48 people, 46 of which were men, and 2 women. All were “white”, which is not very surprising considering the time. In the beginning, much of the debate in the AAG and in the academic realm of geography revolved around this question: how does the environment influence us as humans? For example, how does the environment affect how people in Wisconsin behave, live, and work compared to people in the hills of Appalachia? One of those founding women, Ellen Churchill Semple, infamously argued that people living in harsh areas, like in Appalachia, were bound to be stupid because all of their time must have been spent on surviving and transporting goods up and down dangerous and steep hills. On the flip side, people living in flatter landscapes were expected to be smarter and more accomplished in life by societal standards of the time, because more time could be spent of creativity and not mere survival. This concept is called environmental determinism.

Semple, like many early geographers of the AAG, were influenced heavily by academic geographers from the recently unified German Empire. Semple was a student of Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904), who is associated with a nationalistic idea called Lebensraum. This word is made up of the German noun “das Leben”, meaning “life”, and another noun “raum”, meaning “room” or “space”. It translates to “living space”, which a good handful of European countries – most infamously Germany – wanted more of.

Possibly one of the most accomplished geographers from the AAG also came from this early period, but a little bit later. His name was Richard Hartshorne (1899 – 1992). He was also influenced by the German School of Geography, particularly the lineage of Carl Ritter (1779 – 1859), who was the first Professor of Geography in Berlin in 1820, Ferdinand von Richthofen (1833 – 1905), not to be confused with the Red Baron who has the same last name, and Alfred Hettner (1859 – 1941), who was seen largely as a copy cat of von Richthofen. For Hartshorne, Geography was an “exceptional” subject because of the uniqueness of regions. To him, there was a beauty and complexity to how people across various regions of the world lived and behaved. One of my geography professors, Alec Brownlow, used a nice example that stuck to explain what “uniqueness of regions” actually means.

Take a look at this mosaic of a bee. If you zoomed in and compared some tiles side by side, they would look practically identical. There isn’t any uniqueness, because some tiles could be swapped we wouldn’t even know the difference. Bee

Now, compare the bee to this mosaic of Mario. No two tiles are exactly the same. If we swapped one tile for another, it would be obvious because each tile has its own unique design. For Hartshorne, this uniqueness of regions is what is so fascinating about Geography.

Mario

At the 1923 AAG Conference, Harlan Barrows, the organization’s president at that time, presented a paper calling Geography the “Mother of Sciences”. He essentially contended that fields like Astronomy, Physics, Anthropology, and Zoology, among others, branched off as little polyps from Geography. On one hand, he has a point. The word Geography comes from Greek, and it means to “write about the earth”. Writing about the earth applies to pretty much any subject, so it would make sense that over time other specialized fields like the ones I mentioned came into existence. His article is written sort of defensively, as if to tell all of the other disciplines in the world that “we were here first!” and “you all came from us”!

To me, the AAG president in 1947, John Kirtland Wright, offered the best explanation of what geography is in his presidential address titled Terrae Incognitaewhich comes from Latin meaning “unknown land”. In it, he talks about a term he came up with called geosophy, or the study of geographical knowledge from any or all points of view. This article laid the foundation for thinking of geography as an interdisciplinary discipline, instead of trying to narrowly categorize it as a “science”, a “study of regions”, a “study of landscapes”, or some other label.

However you look at it, geography is a diverse field – from cartographers, Java programmers, academics, and people who study why and where people feel afraid. An interdisciplinary discipline describes it best.

 

One of My Favorite Geographers

by Derek Kaden

Lidia Matticchio Bastianich is her name. You might know her from one of her public television cooking shows, like Lidia’s Italy.

Lidia_Bastianich

She is a chef, writer, restaurateur, entrepreneur, mother, grandmother, and as I would add, a geographer too. In almost every one of her episodes, she takes us to a different region in Italy and cooks meals with ingredients that are particular to those regions. In Sicily, dishes are cooked with a bit more spice than other areas because of an abundance of Peperoncino (dried red pepper flakes), and couscous is also a staple there; the volcanic soil around Naples creates excellent conditions for large vegetables to grow; Puglia – the “heel” of Italy – grows a lot of durum wheat, which supports pasta and bread production in surrounding regions; and places along the Adriatic coast, including the one where Lidia is from, use a variety of sea food – scampi, shrimp, bluefish, sardines, clams, and mussels – in their cooking.

Lidia was born in February 1947 in Pola, Italy, a city on the Adriatic in a region called Istria. This region changed many governmental hands in the last hundred years. After World War I, it was given to Italy by the defeated Austrian Empire. In the summer of 1947 it became part of Yugoslavia, and since that country’s dissolution in the 1990s Croatia administers the area today. Lidia’s hometown now goes by Pula (you can translate that word into Romanian if you dare), and she takes us there in a few of her episodes.

Istria_Today

Current administrative boundaries on the Istrian Peninsula

To me, one of the best moments in her show had nothing to do with cooking, but it made me think about geography and how places are important in all of our lives. In the episode Briny as the Sea, which can be streamed for free on Hulu, Lidia shares recipes she remembers from her childhood. Then, the camera cuts from her New York City kitchen to the Istrian Beach – the same one she played on as a kid – and she says, “this water, these rocks, regenerate me every single time. And when the stresses of today’s life get me, I just pack up and I come to my water, I come to my rocks”. It was a beautiful moment.

I have learned a lot from watching her show – about Italy’s regions, political history, when foods are in-season, and of course good recipes and cooking techniques. I completely recommend for you to watch it, either for free on Hulu or on the public television network Create.

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